The Dr. Wilber P. Armstrong family at home,
Springfield, Christmas 1904 [46k].
- White persons born in the U.S. were considered
natives--4,433,277 resided in Illinois in 1910.
- Of these, 1,723,847 (or 39%) had foreign-born parents.
- If parents were foreign born, they were likely to be German,
Irish, Austrian, or Swedish. People of these ethnic groups were
considered "old" immigrants because many started coming to the U.S.
in the 1800s. These second-generation immigrants were likely to
achieve economic success because they were skilled workers and were
assimilated into American society.
- Natives were the highest percentage of the population in rural
- Natives welcomed newcomers to fill service and industrial jobs
that were unappealing to natives. Many natives considered the
newcomers inferior and potentially disloyal.
- Natives blamed the ills and conflicts of cities and rapid
industrialization on the newcomers. Labor violence, corrupt
political machines, saloons, and falling wages created uneasiness
about the stability of American society and the American standard
- Many natives had achieved comfortable lifestyles. They lived in
attractive two-story houses in well-maintained neighborhoods. They
sent their children to school and dreamt of an even better future
for them. Women ran the household and set a cultural and moral tone
for the family. Many families hired domestic help, often
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